Typos in Exhibit 1?

July 12, 2010 | Cryptography | By: Mark VandeWettering

WARNING: if you are working on this code, this article contains spoilers which may blunt your own intellectual satisfaction in working on it yourself, including some recovered keys.

Okay, I’m home, and feeling pretty jet-lagged, so this might be wrong in some way that additional sleep will reveal, but I wanted to get this out of my head before work today.

First of all, I downloaded Exhibit 1′s plaintext from this page, specifically this link for the plaintext and this link for the ciphertext. These files contain no spaces or carriage returns, so are relatively unfriendly for human consumption, so the first thing I did was to reformat them into 11 groups of 5 characters per line to match the format that Exhibit 1 is presented in the scanned chapter of Silent Years.

Then, I set my constraint solver working. It loads both the cipher and plaintext, and does an exhaustive search to find the consistent wheel settings that consumes the most input. It then dumps the settings as a command line that should decode the ciphertext, or at least as much of it as it has discovered.

The first 100 lines of Exhibit 1 consist of 100 copies of the 55 character sentence:

ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW

So, the first 100 lines of the decryption of the cipher text should be just 99 copies. But my cipher program pointed at a problem after 603 characters. Here are

./chaocipher -d -c 'CPEDQRSTIXYLMOZABFVGUHWJKN' -p 'AYZNBQDSEFGHLWIKCMOPRTUVJX'

When I run this on the original text, I get the following (numbered for convenience):

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ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTYW
ALLGO ODQQU ICKBR OWNFO XESJU MPOVE RLAZY DOGTO SAVET HEIRP ARTGW
ADLGO OSLLI VFCRB YMHAW QGNMS NDNCK GZYPM LAYNZ LFNDO WGBJU IXZLD
TNOJM TUSZG IKMLC WNCKK OUICA YKSJJ SSKFR GLLPU XAOXS BXAPQ ECJSU
SFLFT ZLNQS SWNZN TKSDG JUUQC GQCDD WPDIN FZODL MJEXV WIFFW TEFPS
ZKUAT XVTKL FZLHM VICVD PMEZP YCULX VAXNE AYRSL BBMIT UJGII TSPIQ
UMUMC FWFPO SYYAW EYCKY ZQUVJ BOIIU FBHXT QFHKS EMWDB TSNJY GNIKJ
QHJRR DCGCX MINUQ ZGITG HTINW UZWFX HJEWM QDCXN BXKGY QDDNG IAXNY
RCRAM KCOAI VLKLF SNVGW SQYOA OYUUW YOQAC SUDFF KYXPJ GTBPS ZTONZ
CZPDM MOORN EVZZV AHBUP VOCUJ AHCGZ SLVUY ILIDG YAOOX TYDDA LJDLO
ULRNQ ASEZW BXPSV LEMYZ THMVA BHCII YVHIU JQBAU RGZEI ARUIL NZEDY
BJIOG TRFMH HDJFR ROBKH SMUHY PBYUQ MNNRW YBPRZ KCUQK LGNAI EXRAX
KDJVP JHMRN IFINI ZYGSZ ITDWZ NKGQV QUXVJ YZUIJ FQECB RWSDK QZUHM
XZBFK XGICH IMHHR NKSMF VXTCG IQOJK TCCJO BWQJC ATUBZ ILHRE ULVHQ
WUMDQ SERWK AYNOW PGKZF CWMOG SOLYO YVUSW AIEIO FPJDS SCMEC LTWBA
KNGQE KZFCC RKKXL ZXNTH UQXQD DGJPU EZEVE IPVZC XNRZV OGGVV JBCYP
WMJQG BYMKX NNGAA YDGRA XKVAV LVLFK WIQDE DBZHF YSVEN WOGJK USZPZ
QPEKM UHTDT HTOJU FQIMZ KHPWT AJGDE CEUKS RSLNU GIUAM XUWLN CSJVC
NXOBT AVQTY HLBUL VYYBX CLFEV LKVVE JGYAP SDSIS RZPJQ ISDKS JNEDW
HMSMF DXVZY LVVJF USVXN ZGKFQ NYMZO QQGQJ SCUVS LJRAL NOYIY HRWVD
JMEFF ZRNCU PRUFT NFETI WESRY NOVKQ UVCKY QNWQU OQMHA MATEE QBRWE
YBSQR HLMRH OCLOP PWIOE AGTHF KTMLE TYILX UZSNX JWHIG LJXRB KUCNW
RZMFC OBKBL FGEVF THGHE MYHMA LLWBV SMUDF XGHPM IWDVC ODXYR LGLTU
SGPKX WQBIR IPVJV LNNWR LYSQK OQPOD BBZQL WSSJB IUHVU IXTVW RAUJJ
BLGMT CIVOQ KQXXZ FCXQN GWCWI SQWMY OCZBY PHCEH ULDTT FETNI ESUVQ
CUWCL LSQVL BRYZW BRGIC QFHDU MUJQQ SXCVK SPYRM BYFFI NQZPZ PURFS
RWNWH WOKUZ GSNPM LJQDB XOZEG YTYHH PAGFR NQILO QCTNP RNFMY PHSEH
MXUDW AUDMB MLZBW SIGDP EOAVG BXWWH EREWH DBPSC WFAFS AHATC HAYAL
UVYMP KGPMD NBIWC NQTXT FYVYW KNKQU VJZIH WZCLF HTTBY SRRWW APVAQ
PCZYV PTMLJ BYQRQ IHIHZ ZXIWX CEOVG FYZUN PQFTW NNHYX CQKUN GWVNF
NYGDI ZKOUR VTQYI MNFVX JHJYN TWOKP DMOYF RJOED GLGKL JZYVE EKLZU
JEMXF VWVYZ ROISI CQKRZ XUFWX RFWVS VPPLH MUEOF YUBPW BBOUG BAUMD
GIWET YNTKV DSESI ZLWSL VKHIZ NZKCO JTRGH SWVVZ RUNDD LHEFP XTLHD
LFEFB UHDDH ZORCZ NLKQZ QJZQB ZBQFT CDMOS UGHCE YYUSY EPCID PMZYY
ZHWWL TZNLX HEEMQ JCEYS EAOWO JXBGK BHCAT QTHAB CPXXT BMSLW BBLQR
CSHCH MHURA WOQRG LWMLT WGFDG AOEJF GSFXR DMRHR FCBPY JLFGP UXQHW
NPUQP BKMIC EQZDM YIMXU FWASM CXJAR PSVEK ZMIZV PQNRP YGBLK IXJFF
ASHHB BWRDJ ZXFSG STINW TGJHY TQSRQ ENFIX JMSZZ FYKKC IEOIR ERJYK
JLPCU NXTAP XTCBL HIGZT SEPTW SBMFE WLKZX WIZDG RBAEJ LIIRW UFRKI
NLJTR UTFWF KFSVJ KZQEC VCYNI RIBQM BJHEG FZYAT UQOAS UCLBG GCYBD
PSTDV TKEBN IGUFH XTKTL INLVG KDPGG IEPJG BHASL CBWNS BOVYA GKCRZ
WUQXV JZMNG NANAD BMGFN QUZCM QAHQH VAXWK SRFCY OJGKC RIGHL HGTAH
WCFRZ MHXWK TWJPM YQWJH FNCPU BLBXD YXMSK BDDIY ZQABQ HZMEO WPNOE
RHFVE QHIBY FPDCW EXRZG GJNZO MLEYY WZJHH YVRRM LUHXI YJDDQ TJOOM
EVWYG IQUFD LPPMD QADBK CTBIJ HELST EOXZZ SUUWI XZHIS OXPVY FMNOP
WKOIF JHBOZ CITZQ VTGEM NOJGB KQMVG URNWU GFEBB IDWXB KQEOD FOPIV
XLNJA LPUKH NXQTI YBIEV YIJYT ZHSQW LISZT YPZHQ VOYTF CMRFM QAPSP
YZGZT SHGIW VFZDZ YMVEF YZYJI KHQMG WVQOG YACHG MELVP MNMOE PASDH
WIWLH KAEQX QBEWW IMPVC PZISZ SWZBR SETHW LXHQO DADLT UVUXC JSNKB
EDYMV KNXGM DLOOB KUUFA DRPHO GLBNA WXVCG YZKVY BQMKF NFWGR JPAHA
DGDIO OQCTC SQBKT JVHDE KFKQF KOKYW RPEBF HBKCK ZNQYH MZBWD VAHFF
QVIAZ QUWKA IEVXP KLDWJ ATRTB LYPWI AWPAO TYDOM YFQZR ZTMAS DMCOS
ALHRW QRSPC KIHJV JXSJB UQVOG EWQON BKNLO VPIGF TNGUP BVBTU WHGTJ
XZJAV NCACR UNPZW DQWOT SYOAS YPBQZ TVIYF VZKIW SFETG XUCYI QSBPY
IHYRV YSIII IUGHL FNUUH ARMJL BIAUT WNLOP ZXECP SEBYG SSUGS LNNJR
GMPDT ZQIIE RHKSO UEZBO XEAFB DYKRK ARYYX XQUJG DTWLB WJZCB LHVIQ
RKQAF VVKEW MSVDR ZVQAN JNCBA MJJRR EJKZK ZLILN KKXVR UTXIQ ZRQDG
OKHRZ KWVHH MOHNP JVXLB XVCVV YVYYO CKKZH VRXKQ PWAJY ZIKAS QVFET
CPJHD OOZBT JIULN OSVTG DJBPP ZMALD ZCUJW HNWTL AZNIV VFVQC NMAMC
DXUGM ZUHOX YDEYR NYNIA NRWQY UIRPD UTUZF JLUJL GYIOQ GYGZG DWDIM
GMGJT TPOOK DTBFJ YUAAN OPEGH TSMPT VDUOV ZRANZ MUFDB ECZQV NWCBV
NKLVO ELKJI LKOAI PPRHR AOXIA YNYEY DFSAN JCCTR GDLWE MLOLP SQRXF
NMWLV KXALI PHSHL CHQKI CQZNK VGHBZ YXPBS CQSUB JEUYH RHAXU TJIGJ
EEMUT RSLMQ OJVLO XHXZQ GGNZM CBCZS OAWTR TTZDK YJPIQ FUVMV FCHIC
KLIRL XNRHK QKLKD JZKGJ OTCUQ ISBBH QFQOL VHAWG HWTPB BYDBB PVJKE
HQDFQ OBHXD YLZVV UXHSJ RYNXU MQENC ZHKUN MIZZB NNHRS ZVETO PCQOR
THGUI LBPFB CDJHW ARUBH FEIYL KRTXP FQEKX TFGND WQPVO NTESV WYQFU
OZMVC BMSAF ARKMX LQCWD JEAOZ WVFKM SSQND FVZNH EWCRP TKBBY ZCYCB
OWGTB IIBQX EUSAH VYJVM YHFYQ JFZIS AIKBX YIROC DEAJY PZKXG NQCZI
CCVFP PEDOC DUIES JDHAC THZCD VVSAG AWLIG XATOG ODAPS HWPWL MAUPP
AYXHP QGPKT LBERJ UKYXL JQSJG UKVMM IVWFS CMXER OKYIS QPQUS LOVHM
QIVLW GVEDN SORUC AHVTJ UNEYH VOYEE TSTSW KNGVO PZVCK BNMNC ITPNN
BVAZI JHIKG ULJOY RYYTB MLJZR PUOUZ NZQZI GTOIL CMMXY EUUSQ MJUBT
SFAGH JOKBU ODASI ILJHS QYVVD ZRZOC KZEZW XFVFS OMYZA YRXGC ONOQO
DRUGY MDFVL PRAOH SKVRX YKHRB DJVLA HNDKQ JJWMO VAOND VXZHC WEEXK
ZQQLH AOWLO TNKXI LHEJX ZHTSQ DFFJJ DPAUH TFXDI ZOWUK BOLMY ASRGP
XXNDA DIOCT BJJLK PUOUM LBHFE JBUBS FFYTK PZWNA FUJMA NVKNF JNXRH
HMROR KPBRB AJPUE IBUAI CWEMA SMTED JOAMB KFLPH BPYFT EZQZX JKHIF
VQRTJ ECWYC BQYTO CREGC TPFRT LGSHD YSULB HUVCW YFNYB BRRGH FGWAR
SBZXO LSUYP FJCPC TEZSM ICAZJ ACVIA MXMHC QHHUH HWBFF YSDII FUPYN
NHEWK YWBWH BJBTY GWPYR HSVKH DYHLZ JWCXH SYCFS SYEMJ DVIAA XNQNH
SAVVH ZCHBS LXYEO PIWHC OLQKW CSQXH JLNGE IYGDN XYCZK LTGPR YXMDQ
BXWVC XAJLI SKXIH TJHRB BONEZ ZJDPU YETBL EOVZZ LYMSG XTAEX HAGHS
CVTNS LZSMY ZWFHL ARUVN JMGLB PNZGJ ZFNWT JDYDH HBUAI GKQMG FNXON
FXQRH NNYMB ILCXR SPNZJ KCIVK OMXZN XWVGA KVHSE RVGTM UBCSC PUABB
IOBXN DATDL LTJUZ LMEXE EAHNR PIIHZ WHHEM XMFSM JDRIQ JHPRS CBGRW
CIGED BTPIU HLCTQ KOMDD KBHCV ICRWI CJBSJ IWIVB WYOHK ECODH NBSZH
HUPNL FXJEX SZVMM TLYPQ WYQDJ IIRTN YNIHG UZJFS VQPST RSKNP WMHYT
SEEYI YCKNF NYGEI XLJGF HSFGM NDXEI UUGJF RVBWV CDLDE SFCNW LZXUB
AKWBI KATXO OALDE SHAHB RTXTI FMSEW WKDEB GBWMM RPBXO VRQIR MTQFH
VMPVA BMMTM MPBAI ZTKTS XAZJU NRHUK RCKMI ILHBK VVMSS VWLAE GWXAV

You can see that in line 11, goes awry, and becomes desynchronized. It could have been a bug in my program, but I also suspected the possibility of a typo. So, I created my own version of the cipher text by taking 100 copies of the original line, using the key settings that I recovered, and creating my own version of the cipher text.

They match, except for three places. Here are the context diffs:

*** original.1	2010-07-11 17:37:09.000000000 -0700
--- fixed.1	2010-07-12 07:02:11.000000000 -0700
***************
*** 8,14 ****
  BUZLA GDBCU AMFQL ACRWW TUGSM PPZBR FASRO YIRCA GVEYN SRTOQ TDLFJ
  RUTKF KASGV LVYYF VRAIY NIVJK IUWPF ZBVRU EOTEJ GLCGY SSNHH QTIQW
  UKQAS XKGSP WHRYM TQSOQ BAMAP FQRLI IUGTI VBEBY XFBIU SEYHM LKGOE
! CSWUH TBIZZ HLBND IWTQA MAZBM YMBEK CYKCA BLYQY MELPJ OWNRV FZVBR
  EBVUJ EQIAE MOHTG FHFFI DIQQJ UAWDH LUYRE UGSKT IMDWR RNONJ KDPTC
  JDCJN BVEOU TWXOF GRXND KITNL OXSLZ WQRDE RERHL XWAMY LRVPR JFHRA
  SDJWW OIWEV AVMRR NLRJM IFDHH ADDQC BZWYK DVPAY NPIAX BYUKI JGVUC
--- 8,14 ----
  BUZLA GDBCU AMFQL ACRWW TUGSM PPZBR FASRO YIRCA GVEYN SRTOQ TDLFJ
  RUTKF KASGV LVYYF VRAIY NIVJK IUWPF ZBVRU EOTEJ GLCGY SSNHH QTIQW
  UKQAS XKGSP WHRYM TQSOQ BAMAP FQRLI IUGTI VBEBY XFBIU SEYHM LKGOE
! CSWUH TBIZZ HLBND IWTQA MAZBM YMBEK CYKCA BLYQY MELPJ OWNRV FZVKR
  EBVUJ EQIAE MOHTG FHFFI DIQQJ UAWDH LUYRE UGSKT IMDWR RNONJ KDPTC
  JDCJN BVEOU TWXOF GRXND KITNL OXSLZ WQRDE RERHL XWAMY LRVPR JFHRA
  SDJWW OIWEV AVMRR NLRJM IFDHH ADDQC BZWYK DVPAY NPIAX BYUKI JGVUC
***************
*** 47,53 ****
  AEXFA UPOKM SBMNZ YUHEM ZLBQM ROIUH KECCE IXDAR VFAEV WDHPS GYTTA
  ZRNTO WRSTD YOKCW NQUIS WEFIF LFFZQ BSDCS CBNRQ SZLXB BRICQ CLSCB
  INRYO RGNZE GCYAW PMCQL CGBMX BBUBO NQOZZ OFNQR YMZWA CDMGX NAIRA
! ABKCI OWTGT OTOOK MFRPG XADLN AAJSU BMTIQ VHOUZ TBCZA LEOPO YVEWO
  USDUN TZTJT YXUIG OZQFS VDDSR JWUFH FGIZS ORJTB IVSKB BHMPQ NXMWK
  AGSNT KJWOX HALOV WEXTS VKIYF ADOMO NPZCZ FZROC BIRWP UNTAX WXSER
  PGPPU RINGD CGFDG ZALDT NXPUQ EPQSU ZVKDO TXTBN MUQAS ZKIGH WQRQI
--- 47,53 ----
  AEXFA UPOKM SBMNZ YUHEM ZLBQM ROIUH KECCE IXDAR VFAEV WDHPS GYTTA
  ZRNTO WRSTD YOKCW NQUIS WEFIF LFFZQ BSDCS CBNRQ SZLXB BRICQ CLSCB
  INRYO RGNZE GCYAW PMCQL CGBMX BBUBO NQOZZ OFNQR YMZWA CDMGX NAIRA
! ABKCI OWTGT CTOOK MFRPG XADLN AAJSU BMTIQ VHOUZ TBCZA LEOPO YVEWO
  USDUN TZTJT YXUIG OZQFS VDDSR JWUFH FGIZS ORJTB IVSKB BHMPQ NXMWK
  AGSNT KJWOX HALOV WEXTS VKIYF ADOMO NPZCZ FZROC BIRWP UNTAX WXSER
  PGPPU RINGD CGFDG ZALDT NXPUQ EPQSU ZVKDO TXTBN MUQAS ZKIGH WQRQI
***************
*** 84,90 ****
  FCNLQ NWAOG NTOIV JZRVS IACOO KEYIN OZBNP KEGHF JFASY SDIFB NXNXF
  JPSAM RVBQG XNIZB MVGVU VNFMU FJXEL BZLTP IFIWB LBXPB QDXAW FRHBF
  QPDCM OXOSU MMERK QNMYF YKDOC BOXIY SPLGV PBLNG NKTAK YNGBX MIPOM
! RIDCL TCIBZ HFLDV RXBKP LRKMU CQHEY RAAVH XAYDH NNNUN JCINA RAEXP
  UAQRP RUDMO OHOOM EMGUP IEEIX AQTLU PETXI BQEPN IWBRE BNSEQ RDUGG
  TGWUR QRJRL XGRDP MJPDX TSDBG YYQDR DQYSZ GLXDR IDLYX FIVSQ WZVQG
  QRXLN LBLGT EGHVN ZXRFN HFQOW XIXBE ULILO MRXQO GJXRC JOUZH OTJAK
--- 84,90 ----
  FCNLQ NWAOG NTOIV JZRVS IACOO KEYIN OZBNP KEGHF JFASY SDIFB NXNXF
  JPSAM RVBQG XNIZB MVGVU VNFMU FJXEL BZLTP IFIWB LBXPB QDXAW FRHBF
  QPDCM OXOSU MMERK QNMYF YKDOC BOXIY SPLGV PBLNG NKTAK YNGBX MIPOM
! RIDCL TCIBZ HFLDV RXBKF LRKMU CQHEY RAAVH XAYDH NNNUN JCINA RAEXP
  UAQRP RUDMO OHOOM EMGUP IEEIX AQTLU PETXI BQEPN IWBRE BNSEQ RDUGG
  TGWUR QRJRL XGRDP MJPDX TSDBG YYQDR DQYSZ GLXDR IDLYX FIVSQ WZVQG
  QRXLN LBLGT EGHVN ZXRFN HFQOW XIXBE ULILO MRXQO GJXRC JOUZH OTJAK

The first is clearly a transcription error: if you look at the original, the last five characters should be FZVKR. The next is seemingly a printers error, it does appear to say OTOOK instead of CTOOK. And frankly, I don’t remember what I found out about the last one.

If you fix these three typos, the first 117 lines of Exhibit 1 decode properly, then go astray again. I haven’t worked on figuring out what the next typo is.

Eventually we should make a verified copy of the Exhibit 1 plain and cipher texts available, so that others won’t need to toil through this.

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Comments

Comment from Moshe Rubin
Time 7/16/2010 at 3:06 am

Hi Mark,

No one else has encountered the garbling beginning with line 11. Indeed, when I downloaded the exhibit 1 plaintext file a few minutes ago and enciphered with the correct keys it ran correctly to the end, producing the exact ciphertext.

I suggest taking a look at your algorithm at the precise point when it enciphers line 11. You may find, for example, that the alphabets at the point of the garble should not be shifted at all, and that the algorithm fails in this case.

I just cleaned up the plaintext file from benign transcription errors introduced by the publishing company when they typesetted Byrne’s exhibits (you can see the exact errors at http://www.mountainvistasoft.com/chaocipher/Chaocipher-ASCII-versions.htm). Nonetheless, none of these plaintext errors should have caused you problems. You may want to download the files again to avoid any surprises in the future.

To the best of my knowledge, the plaintext and ciphertext files for Exhibit 1, as presented on The Chaocipher Clearing House site, are error-free.

Regards,

Moshe

Comment from Bruce
Time 11/18/2010 at 7:18 pm

I found this page by searching on google for “ADLGO OSLLI VFCRB YMHAW QGNMS NDNCK GZYPM LAYNZ LFNDO WGBJU IXZLD”, as I encountered the same unexpected decipher output that Mark reported, using a version of Chaocipher I programmed for the JGenere project at http://jgenere.googlecode.com (for which code and documentation to be posted soon).

I can confirm both Mark’s and Moshe’s observations. The problem appears to be that there are two different versions of chaocipher-exhibit-1.ct.txt available for download from http://www.mountainvistasoft.com/chaocipher/Chaocipher-ASCII-versions.htm

The link to directly download the file http://www.mountainvistasoft.com/chaocipher/chaocipher-exhibit-1.ct.txt does not contain the three errors Mark reported in this blog entry, and it deciphers as expected, but the file with the same name inside the zip file at http://www.mountainvistasoft.com/chaocipher/chaocipher-ascii-texts.zip does contain the three differences that Mark reported.

I will request that Moshe please clarify if something is misunderstood.

Comment from Moshe Rubin
Time 11/21/2010 at 7:27 pm

Bruce contacted me and was indeed correct: Although I had corrected the chaocipher-exhibit-1.ct.txt file several months ago, I had forgotten to update the ZIP file. I’m happy to report that the ZIP file is now correct and verified by Bruce — thanks, Bruce!

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